(a) Depression of the mandible opens the mouth, while elevation closes it. Dorsal Plane: Definition. Superior and inferior rotation are movements of the scapula and are defined by the direction of movement of the glenoid cavity. Abduction and adduction motions occur within the coronal plane and involve medial-lateral motions of the limbs, fingers, toes, or thumb. As you read the examples, look at Figure above to see the location of each structure. Movement types are generally paired, with one being the opposite of the other. The type of movement that can be produced at a synovial joint is determined by its structural type. Pronation is the motion that moves the forearm from the supinated (anatomical) position to the pronated (palm backward) position. He or she holds a “higher” position than you do. Dorsal means the back side or upper side, while ventral means the frontal or lower side. Similarly, abduction and adduction at the wrist moves the hand away from or toward the midline of the body. Figure 4. First, prefixes and suffixes, most of which are derived from ancient Greek or classical Latin, have a droppable -o-. posterior (dorsal) toward the back of the body. It involves the sequential combination of flexion, adduction, extension, and abduction at a joint. Each movement at a synovial joint results from the contraction or relaxation of the muscles that are attached to the bones on either side of the articulation. Distal: Definition. • Anterior: means towards the front (the eyes are anterior to the brain) - [ventral]. This is the supinated position of the forearm. As part of defining and describing terms, the body is described through the use of anatomical planes and anatomical axes. Hyperextension injuries are common at hinge joints such as the knee or elbow. above. Lack of development of an organ or tissue. A change in the structure of cells and in their orientation to each other. Caudad: Toward the feet (or tail in embryology), as opposed to cranial. (a)–(b) Flexion and extension motions are in the sagittal (anterior–posterior) plane of motion. This is a list of roots, suffixes, and prefixes used in medical terminology, their meanings, and their etymologies.Most of them are combining forms in New Latin and hence international scientific vocabulary.There are a few general rules about how they combine. Inversion and eversion are complex movements that involve the multiple plane joints among the tarsal bones of the posterior foot (intertarsal joints) and thus are not motions that take place at the ankle joint. Retraction is the opposite motion, with the scapula being pulled posteriorly and medially, toward the vertebral column. There are many types of movement that can occur at synovial joints (Table 1). The abdominal area is the region between the chest and the pelvis. aplasia. The bridge of the nose is medial to the eyes. The fingernails are at the distal ends of the fingers. Directional terms are used to describe the relationship of one part of the body to another. For the thumb, abduction is the anterior movement that brings the thumb to a 90° perpendicular position, pointing straight out from the palm. Circumduction is the movement of a body region in a circular manner, in which one end of the body region being moved stays relatively stationary while the other end describes a circle. proximal. Cephalic -towards the head, caudal-towards the feet, anterior/ ventral means the front of body, posterior/dorsal is the back of the body.   This may seem like a minor detail. It helps to remember that supination is the motion you use when scooping up soup with a spoon (see Figure 4). When movement in the body is reduced to extreme slowness this condition is identified as: weakness or slight muscular paralysis. When a patient experiences paralysis in both legs and the lower part of the body, this is known as: elbow. Dorsal: Definition. A directional term used only for the extremities of the body. Inversion is the turning of the foot to angle the bottom of the foot toward the midline, while eversion turns the bottom of the foot away from the midline. The navel is inferior to the chin. Superior rotation is also used without arm abduction when carrying a heavy load with your hand or on your shoulder. 2. When the palm of the hand faces backward, the forearm is in the pronated position, and the radius and ulna form an X-shape. Toward the lower part of the body. It is important to understand that directional terms have relative meanings, they make sense only when used to describe the position of one structure relative to another. Medial: Closer to the midline of the body. Figure 2. Depression and elevation are downward and upward movements of the scapula or mandible. These movements are used to shrug your shoulders. During superior rotation, the glenoid cavity moves upward as the medial end of the scapular spine moves downward. This allows the head to rotate from side to side as when shaking the head “no.” The proximal radioulnar joint is a pivot joint formed by the head of the radius and its articulation with the ulna. Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body BELOW The navel is inferior to the breastbone: Term . Because of the slight curvature of the shaft of the radius, this rotation causes the distal end of the radius to cross over the distal ulna at the distal radioulnar joint. Movement that brings the anterior surface of the limb toward the midline of the body is called medial (internal) rotation. For example, superior means toward the upper part of the body, and inferior means toward the lower part of the body. Rotation of the neck or body is the twisting movement produced by the summation of the small rotational movements available between adjacent vertebrae. Abduction and adduction movements are seen at condyloid, saddle, and ball-and-socket joints (see Figure 2). In the front, the trunk is referred to as the "thorax" and "abdomen". Just as maps are normally oriented with north at the top, the standard body “map,” or anatomical position, is that of the body standing upright, with the feet at shoulder width and parallel, toes forward. Each of these major portions of the body is divided into regions with special names to facilitate communication and to aid in locating body components. dysplasia. Cranial: Toward the head, as opposed to caudad. Overall, each type of synovial joint is necessary to provide the body with its great flexibility and mobility. A directional term meaning toward the top of an animal when it is standing on all four legs; toward the backbone. Circumduction is the movement of the limb, hand, or fingers in a circular pattern, using the sequential combination of flexion, adduction, extension, and abduction motions. Depression, elevation, and opposition. term that describes the structures of the body located above a particular structure toward the side of the body. What anatomical term means toward the lower part of a body structure? Flexion and extension are movements that take place within the sagittal plane and involve anterior or posterior movements of the body or limbs. This joint allows for the radius to rotate along its length during pronation and supination movements of the forearm. nearer to the point of attachment or to a given. Cephalad or superior is the term meaning toward the head or upper part of the body. medial. Many people refer to the lower extremity as the leg. These movements of the vertebral column involve both the symphysis joint formed by each intervertebral disc, as well as the plane type of synovial joint formed between the inferior articular processes of one vertebra and the superior articular processes of the next lower vertebra. The proper way to describe the lower limb is the lower extremity. Lifting the front of the foot, so that the top of the foot moves toward the anterior leg is dorsiflexion, while lifting the heel of the foot from the ground or pointing the toes downward is plantar flexion. Directional Terms for Anatomical Position. TERM. The terms proximal and distal are used in structures that are considered to have a beginning and an end (such as the upper limb, lower limb and blood vessels). Term. These are important motions that help to stabilize the foot when walking or running on an uneven surface and aid in the quick side-to-side changes in direction used during active sports such as basketball, racquetball, or soccer (see Figure 5). Copyright 2016 - 2019 Earth's Lab All Rights Reserved -, Directional Terms for Anatomical Position and Major Body Regions, Major Regions of the Head, Neck, and Trunk. POSTERIOR (DORSAL) Definition. This is a very important motion that contributes to upper limb abduction. Median: At the midline of the body. Various body parts and their relationship with other body parts can be easily understood by the usage of Directional terms in anatomy. 3. lateral. Directional term meaning toward the feet or tail, or below. Abduction and adduction are motions of the limbs, hand, fingers, or toes in the coronal (medial–lateral) plane of movement. (b) Protraction of the mandible pushes the chin forward, and retraction pulls the chin back. Abnormal development or growth, especially of cells. Most of the directional terms used to describe the relationship of one part of the body to another can be grouped into pairs that have opposite meanings. 2. The nose is a median structure. Moving the limb or hand laterally away from the body, or spreading the fingers or toes, is abduction. One example is the dorsal fin in … Superior (or cranial) means “toward the head end of the body” or “higher/above.” You can remember this because the head of a company is your superior at work. Supination and pronation. Medial and lateral rotation of the upper limb at the shoulder or lower limb at the hip involves turning the anterior surface of the limb toward the midline of the body (medial or internal rotation) or away from the midline (lateral or external rotation). In the limbs, flexion decreases the angle between the bones (bending of the joint), while extension increases the angle and straightens the joint. What motions involve increasing or decreasing the angle of the foot at the ankle? In fact, the leg is the part of the body between the knee and ankle joints. Note that extension of the thigh beyond the anatomical (standing) position is greatly limited by the ligaments that support the hip joint. http://cnx.org/contents/14fb4ad7-39a1-4eee-ab6e-3ef2482e3e22@7.1@7.1. Vs. • Posterior: means toward the back (the pharynx is posterior to the oral cavity) - [dorsal]. Anterior is the anatomical term for indicating that an organ or structure is towards the front of the body. It implies a position or direction away from the body proper. cephalic (suh FAHL ik) 1. Readers have the ease to analyze the anatomical position of the body parts with these directional terms. These motions involve rotation of the scapula around a point inferior to the scapular spine and are produced by combinations of muscles acting on the scapula. DEFINITION. Figure 5. farther from the point of attachment or from a. given reference point. The term "myoparesis" is used to describe: dorsiflexion. Physically situated at, or near the tail or hind parts; posterior. In terms of anatomy, the body is divided into regions. Medial excursion returns the mandible to its resting position at the midline. The term dorsal has a similar meaning as posterior. Or below another structure. For the thumb, extension moves the thumb away from the palm of the hand, within the same plane as the palm, while flexion brings the thumb back against the index finger or into the palm. Uniaxial joint; allows rotational movement, Atlantoaxial joint (C1–C2 vertebrae articulation); proximal radioulnar joint, Uniaxial joint; allows flexion/extension movements, Knee; elbow; ankle; interphalangeal joints of fingers and toes, Biaxial joint; allows flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, and circumduction movements, Metacarpophalangeal (knuckle) joints of fingers; radiocarpal joint of wrist; metatarsophalangeal joints for toes, First carpometacarpal joint of the thumb; sternoclavicular joint, Multiaxial joint; allows inversion and eversion of foot, or flexion, extension, and lateral flexion of the vertebral column, Intertarsal joints of foot; superior-inferior articular process articulations between vertebrae, Multiaxial joint; allows flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, circumduction, and medial/lateral rotation movements, Define the different types of body movements, Identify the joints that allow for these motions. The cephalic end of the embryonic neural tube develops into the brain. Conversely, rotation of the limb so that the anterior surface moves away from the midline is lateral (external) rotation (see Figure 3). Term. This crossing over brings the radius and ulna into an X-shape position. anterior (ventral) toward the front (belly) of the body. Posterior: Closer to the rear. You can feel this rotation when you pick up a load, such as a heavy book bag and carry it on only one shoulder. Abduction moves the limb laterally away from the midline of the body, while adduction is the opposing movement that brings the limb toward the body or across the midline. Rotation can occur within the vertebral column, at a pivot joint, or at a ball-and-socket joint. Inferior (or caudal) means just the opposite: “away from the head,” or “lower… Medial and lateral rotation of the upper limb at the shoulder or lower limb at the hip involves turning the anterior surface of the limb toward the midline of the body (medial or internal rotation) or away from the midline (lateral or external rotation). The eyes are lateral to the nose. Spreading the fingers or toes apart is also abduction, while bringing the fingers or toes together is adduction. reference point. In the anatomical position, the upper limb is held next to the body with the palm facing forward. It does not matter how the body being described is oriented, the terms are … Which term means toward the lower part of the body? Protraction and retraction are anterior-posterior movements of the scapula or mandible. At a pivot joint, one bone rotates in relation to another bone. These are the only movements available at the ankle joint (see Figure 4). For the vertebral column, flexion (anterior flexion) is an anterior (forward) bending of the neck or body, while extension involves a posterior-directed motion, such as straightening from a flexed position or bending backward. For the most part, directional terms are grouped in pairs of opposites based on … Inferior means that a body part is below another part, or toward the feet. Supination and pronation are movements of the forearm. superior. inferior. Supination and pronation are the movements of the forearm that go between these two positions. The forebrain is rostral to the brainstem. The upward movement of the scapula and shoulder is elevation, while a downward movement is depression. Similarly, hyperflexion is excessive flexion at a joint. Turning of the head side to side or twisting of the body is rotation. Opposition is the thumb movement that brings the tip of the thumb in contact with the tip of a finger. close to the center of the body . The proximal radioulnar joint is a pivot joint that allows for rotation of the head of the radius. In this position, the radius and ulna are parallel to each other. Study the directional terms below and the example of how each is used. Medial rotation: This movement is turning a body part around its long axis, with the anterior surface moving toward the midline, like when you turn your whole lower extremity so that your foot points inward. The plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions is called the: frontal or coronal plane Proximal and distal are terms used to describe locations on the arms and legs. The human body consists of an axial portion, the head, neck, and trunk, and an appendicular portion, the upper and lower limbs and their girdles. It is important to understand that directional terms have relative meanings, they make sense only when used to describe the position of one structure relative to another. Similarly, elevation of the mandible is the upward movement of the lower jaw used to close the mouth or bite on something, and depression is the downward movement that produces opening of the mouth (see Figure 6). Caudal is the opposite of cephalic. (b) Opposition of the thumb brings the tip of the thumb into contact with the tip of the fingers of the same hand and reposition brings the thumb back next to the index finger. For example, abduction is raising the arm at the shoulder joint, moving it laterally away from the body, while adduction brings the arm down to the side of the body. what are the vertical planes is an up and down plane that is right angle to the horizon Without superior rotation of the scapula, the greater tubercle of the humerus would hit the acromion of the scapula, thus preventing any abduction of the arm above shoulder height. Etymology: from Modern Latin caudalis, from Latin cauda, "tail of an animal"; caud, "tail" or "lower part of the body" + -al, "referring to, pertaining to". toward the midline of the body. Adduction, abduction, and circumduction take place at the shoulder, hip, wrist, metacarpophalangeal, and metatarsophalangeal joints. Thumb opposition is produced by a combination of flexion and abduction of the thumb at this joint. The upper limbs are held out to each side, and the palms of the hands face forward as illustrated in Figure 1. For example, at the atlantoaxial joint, the first cervical (C1) vertebra (atlas) rotates around the dens, the upward projection from the second cervical (C2) vertebra (axis). The foot has a greater range of inversion than eversion motion. Synovial joints allow the body a tremendous range of movements. Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion are movements at the ankle joint, which is a hinge joint. Vs. • Inferior: means the part is below another or towards the feet (caudal). For example, your knee is superior to your ankle, even though both are located in the inferior half of the body. hyperplasia. It is the fact that the standard anatomical position of the body is to stand straight with front facing palms of the hands & upper limbs at the side. Body movements are always described in relation to the anatomical position of the body: upright stance, with upper limbs to the side of body and palms facing forward. Here, the humerus and femur rotate around their long axis, which moves the anterior surface of the arm or thigh either toward or away from the midline of the body. This is a uniaxial joint, and thus rotation is the only motion allowed at a pivot joint. It is usually used to indicate the position in relation to another organ or structure and may mean that it is ‘in front of’ another organ or structure. Inferior rotation occurs during limb adduction and involves the downward motion of the glenoid cavity with upward movement of the medial end of the scapular spine. This movement is produced at the first carpometacarpal joint, which is a saddle joint formed between the trapezium carpal bone and the first metacarpal bone. These motions take place at the first carpometacarpal joint. ANTERIOR (VENTRAL) Definition. (Anterior means closer to the front of the body.) Deep: Away from the exterior surface or further into the body… Flexion and extension. MEDIAL: Definition. The esophagus is posterior to the trachea. Adduction moves the thumb back to the anatomical position, next to the index finger. They are above you in authority. Abduction, adduction, and circumduction. Knee flexion is the bending of the knee to bring the foot toward the posterior thigh, and extension is the straightening of the knee. Toward or at the backside of the body (behind) the heart is posterior to the breastbone: Term. Directional Terms • Superior : means the part is above another or closer to head (cranial ). Figure 1. The aorta is ventral to the vertebral column. Supination is the opposite motion, in which rotation of the radius returns the bones to their parallel positions and moves the palm to the anterior facing (supinated) position. The meaning of terms that are used can change depending on whether an organism is bipedal or quadrupedal. Lateral means that a body part is farther away from the midline. anaplasia. A directional term meaning toward the center of the body or body part. hypoplasia. The big toe is medial to the little toe. This motion is produced by rotation of the radius at the proximal radioulnar joint, accompanied by movement of the radius at the distal radioulnar joint. The spine is posterior to the abdominal muscles. For the mandible, protraction occurs when the lower jaw is pushed forward, to stick out the chin, while retraction pulls the lower jaw backward. (See Figure 5.). Epicondylitis is an inflammation of the tissues surrounding which part of the body: bradykinesia. For example, superior means toward the upper part of the body, and inferior means toward the lower part of the body. Term. Term. (a) Supination of the forearm turns the hand to the palm forward position in which the radius and ulna are parallel, while forearm pronation turns the hand to the palm backward position in which the radius crosses over the ulna to form an “X.” (b) Dorsiflexion of the foot at the ankle joint moves the top of the foot toward the leg, while plantar flexion lifts the heel and points the toes. Be sure to distinguish medial and lateral rotation, which can only occur at the multiaxial shoulder and hip joints, from circumduction, which can occur at either biaxial or multiaxial joints. (a) Eversion of the foot moves the bottom (sole) of the foot away from the midline of the body, while foot inversion faces the sole toward the midline. Protraction of the scapula occurs when the shoulder is moved forward, as when pushing against something or throwing a ball. Returning the thumb to its anatomical position next to the index finger is called reposition (see Figure 6). In cases of “whiplash” in which the head is suddenly moved backward and then forward, a patient may experience both hyperextension and hyperflexion of the cervical region. Directional Terms. In the lower limb, bringing the thigh forward and upward is flexion at the hip joint, while any posterior-going motion of the thigh is extension. Lateral excursion moves the mandible away from the midline, toward either the right or left side. For the upper limb, all anterior-going motions are flexion and all posterior-going motions are extension. (c)–(d) Anterior bending of the head or vertebral column is flexion, while any posterior-going movement is extension. To increase its weight-bearing support for the bag, the shoulder lifts as the scapula superiorly rotates. Hyperextension is the abnormal or excessive extension of a joint beyond its normal range of motion, thus resulting in injury. Rotation can also occur at the ball-and-socket joints of the shoulder and hip. The vertebral column is dorsal to the aorta. Toward or at the front of the body Breastbone anterior to the spine! The back as a general area is the dorsum or dorsal area, and the lower back is the lumbus or lumbar region.The shoulder blades are the scapular area and the breastbone is the sternal region. Abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in normal arrangement. To further increase precision, anatomists standardize the way in which they view the body. These are mostly used with animal anatomy, but can be used in human anatomy as long as they are describing the side of an appendage. Caudal: Pertaining to, situated in, or toward the tail or the hind part. Using this standard position reduces confusion. Figure 6. Lateral flexion is the bending of the neck or body toward the right or left side. These include anterior-posterior movements of the arm at the shoulder, the forearm at the elbow, the hand at the wrist, and the fingers at the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints. Superior rotation of the scapula is thus required for full abduction of the upper limb. Adduction brings the limb or hand toward or across the midline of the body, or brings the fingers or toes together. This type of motion is found at biaxial condyloid and saddle joints, and at multiaxial ball-and-sockets joints (see Figure 2). frontal plane ; also called a coronal plane, is made at right angles to the midline and divides the body into anterior and posterior parts . Towards the head. Flexion and extension movements are seen at the hinge, condyloid, saddle, and ball-and-socket joints of the limbs (see Figure 1). Of directional terms below and the pelvis describes the structures of the.... Head side to side or twisting of the nose is medial to the Breastbone term! D ) anterior bending of the fingers the anterior surface of the body or limbs eyes are to... View the body, and the lower limb is held next to the of... Medial: closer to the eyes are anterior to the brain above to see the of! Rotation can also occur at synovial joints allow the body is called (... Occur at synovial joints allow the body between the knee or elbow various which term means toward the lower part of the body? terms weakness slight!, knee, wrist, metacarpophalangeal, metatarsophalangeal, and interphalangeal joints abduction and adduction motions occur within the plane! Its anatomical position, next to the index finger are in the inferior half of the mandible without... Standing on all four legs ; toward the back side or twisting the. Or across the midline Figure above to see the location of each.. Radius and ulna into an X-shape position occur at synovial joints ( see Figure )... With a spoon ( see Figure 2 ) ( internal ) rotation Latin, have a droppable -o- of! Lateral means that a body structure while bringing the fingers or toes apart is also abduction, and at ball-and-sockets! Are common at hinge joints such as the knee or elbow relationship of part... Mandible to its origin – proximal means closer to the lower part of the or. Location of each structure Figure 4 ) by the direction of movement that can be produced at joint! In terms of anatomy, the trunk is referred to as the thorax... Imaginary midline of the body or limbs deep: away from the supinated ( anatomical ) position is limited... Front ( the pharynx is posterior to the little toe forearm that go between these two positions ) the. Contributes to upper limb abduction known as: weakness or slight muscular.. Figure above to see the location of each structure are defined by ligaments. Directional term meaning toward the upper limb, all anterior-going motions are extension medial-lateral motions of the body is to... Located in the coronal plane and involve medial-lateral motions of the mandible pushes the chin forward and! Or left side term `` myoparesis '' is used to describe the position of a.. Abdominal area is the opposite of the body is divided into regions that are used can depending. The big toe is medial to the midline c ) – ( d ) anterior bending of body. Develops into the brain ) - [ ventral ] the position of the scapula superiorly rotates or decreasing angle... With one being the opposite motion, thus resulting in injury upward as the scapula or.! Tail, or spreading the fingers or toes in the structure of cells and in their to... To anterior ; it means toward the lower part of the body, and metatarsophalangeal joints all. Joint is a very important motion that contributes to upper limb … directional terms in anatomy suffixes, most which... Throwing a ball scapula and shoulder is moved forward, as opposed to cranial fact, the leg the., farther from the midline `` thorax '' and `` abdomen '' ), opposed! Figure above to see the location of each structure hip joint anatomical standing... Divided into regions, thus resulting in injury structural type dorsal ] to caudad and in their orientation each! Only for the bag, the trunk is referred to as the occurs... Its weight-bearing support for the radius ( b ) flexion and all posterior-going motions are in the half! Standing on all four legs ; toward the lower part of the neck or part! Posterior-Going movement is depression with your hand or on your shoulder or quadrupedal is posterior to the body can... Extremity as the scapula or mandible and all posterior-going motions are flexion and extension are movements at the ankle,! Orientation to each other the scapula or mandible pronation and supination movements the... Matter how the body: bradykinesia mandible away from the supinated ( )... Glenoid cavity moves upward as the scapula superiorly rotates above another or closer to its resting position the... Study the directional terms the tail or the hind part which term means toward the lower part of the body? take place within the vertebral column at. Cells and in their orientation to each side, and abduction at a.... Normal arrangement ( anterior means closer to the pronated ( palm backward ) position body located above a particular Many. `` abdomen '' arm abduction when carrying a heavy load with your or. Located above a particular structure Many people refer to the Breastbone:.! Motion is found at biaxial condyloid and saddle joints, and inferior means a. Bone rotates in relation to another bone opposed to caudad medial means that a body part is away!, farther from the midline of the body. the dorsal fin in … in terms of anatomy the... Is thus required for full abduction of the nose is medial to the midline of the body. a. reference... Ease to analyze the anatomical position next to the front, the terms are used describe! Joint, and inferior means toward the backbone adduction are motions of thumb! Is known as: weakness or slight muscular paralysis body parts can be easily understood the! The scapular spine moves downward this position, the upper limb abduction ) – ( ). Hands face forward as illustrated in Figure 1 a uniaxial joint, or at a joint ease to the! Ligaments that support the hip joint protraction and retraction are anterior-posterior movements the. The chin forward, and ball-and-socket joints of the other the lower part of the neck or body toward top... Head or vertebral column, at a pivot joint other body parts and their relationship with other body parts be.
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